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Lorestān (also Luristan, Persian and Luri: لرستان) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, located in the western part of the country amidst the Zagros mountain range. It borders Markazi and Hamedan provinces to the north, Kermanshah and Ilam provinces to the west, Khuzestan province to the south and Isfahan province to the east. Lorestan has an area of 28,294 km² and a population of 1,758,628 (2006). Its center is the city of Khorramabad. Other major cities in this province are Borujerd, Aligoodarz, Dorood, Koohdasht, Azna, Alashtar, Noor Abad, and Pol-e-Dokhtar.

The name Lorestan means "land of the Lurs". Lurs, are a mixture of indigenous inhabitants of the Zagros- and Iranian-speaking tribes migrating from Central Asia. Their language, called Luri, is closely related to Persian, with two distinct dialects, "Lur-e-Bozourg" (Greater Lur) spoken by the Bakhtiaris and "Lur-e-Kuchik" (Lesser Lur) spoken by the Lurs themselves. People in Borujerd speak Borujerdi Dialect, a local Persian dialect with a big influence from Luri. Prior to the 20th century the majority of Lurs were nomadic herders, with an urban minority residing in the city of Khorramabad. There were several attempts by the Pahlavi government to forcibly settle the nomadic segment of the Lur population. Under Reza Shah, these campaigns tended to be unsuccessful. The last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, used less forceful methods along with economic incentives, which met with greater, though not complete, success. By the mid-1980s the vast majority of Lurs had been settled in towns and villages throughout the province, or had migrated to the major urban centres. However, a number of nomadic Lur tribes still continue to exist in the province.

The terrain consists chiefly of mountains, with numerous ranges, part of the Zagros mountain range, running northwest to southeast. The central range has many summits which almost reach the line of perpetual snow, rising to 13,000 feet and more, and it feeds the headwaters of Iran's most important rivers, such as the Zayandeh rud, Jarahi, Karun, Dez, Abi, Karkheh. Between the higher ranges lie many fertile plains and low hilly, well-watered districts. The highest point of the province is Oshtoran Kooh peak at 4,050 m.

The climate is generally sub-humid continental with winter precipitation, a lot of which falls as snow (Köppen Csa). Because it lies on the westernmost slopes of the Zagros Mountains, annual precipitation in Lorestān is among the highest anywhere in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains. At Khorramabad, the average annual precipitation totals 530 millimetres (21 inches) of rainfall equivalent, whilst up to 1270 millimetres (50 inches) may fall on the highest mountains. The months June to September are usually absolutely dry, but Khorramabad can expect 4 inches of rainfall equivalent in December and January. Temperatures vary widely with the seasons and between day and night. At Khorramabad, summer temperatures typically range from a minimum of 12°C (54°F) to a hot maximum of 32°C (90°F). In winter, they range from a minimum of -2°C (28°F) to a maximum of 8°C (46°F).

Lorestan is one of the oldest regions of Iran. In the third and fourth millennium B.C., migrant tribes settled down in the mountainous area of the Zagros Mountains. The Kassites, an ancient people who spoke neither an Indo-European nor a Semitic language, originated in Lorestan. It was invaded and settled by the Medes in the second millennium B.C. The indigenous inhabitants of the region, primarily the Elamites and Kassites, were absorbed it to Medes by the time the area was conquered by the Persians in the first millennium B.C. Lorestan was successfully integrated into the Achamenid, Parthian and Sassanian empires.

Lorestān has 263 sites of historical and cultural significance according to Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization. Some of the most popular tourist attractions are 6th Century Inscription in Khorramabad, Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, Sassanid Kashgan Bridge in Koohdasht, Khorramabad Tower, Jame Mosque of Borujerd, Soltani Mosque of Borujerd, Imamzadeh Ja'far in Borujerd, Bazaar of Borujerd, Pariz Kooh Mountain Dorood, Gahar Lake in Dorood, Kiyou Lake, Khorramabad, Oshtoran Kooh Mountain in Dorood, Bisheh Waterfall Dorood.