Wetlands of Iran
Anzali Lagoon (also Anzali Mordab, Anzali Bay, Pahlavi Mordab, Pahlavi Bay or Anzali Liman) is a coastal liman, or lagoon, in the Caspian Sea near Bandar-e Anzali, in the northern Iranian province of Gilan. The lagoon divides Bandar-e Anzali into two parts, and is home to both the Selke Wildlife Refuge and the Siahkesheem Marsh.
Shadegan wetland (with an area of 537700 hectares) is an environmental system comprising of fresh and saline wetlands as well as tidal gulf of Khor mousa and its islands. The wetland is located beneath Jerahi river, between the cities of Shadegan, Abadan and Mahshar in Khouzestan province and reach to the Persian gulf at the end.
Shadegan wetland is the biggest Ramsar site in Iran, been registered in 1975 and is considered as an important international wetland. According to the 1381 studies, 17 plant communities comprise of 110 plant species ( including Khor mousa islands) have been identified in the territories of the wetland. Furthermore, this wetland is internationally recognized due to its high animal biodiversity and so far about 311 animal species has been identified in the vicinity of the wetland. The unique and important features of Shadegan wetland includes big scale, a natural ecosystem, biodiversity and its important role in the livelihood of the local residents. The three big cities of Shadegan, Abadan and Mahshar are close to this wetland. There are also several villages in the vicinities of Shadegan wetland. The majority of the population in this cities and villages are Arabs with the main occupation of farming and ranching. Buffalo graving, fishing, hunting birds and harvesting reeds are the main benefits gained from the wetland by the local people. The major threads to the wetlands includes the inflow of the drainages, water pollution, The reduction of the floodwater inflow, long term climate change/drought, the introduction of nonnative species, the leakage of petroleum materials form the pipes and disturbance for the wild life.
The above mentioned can be considered as one of the reputed wet lands in the central plateau of Iran. This vicinity covers an area of 476 sq. km. and is located 167 km. southeast of Esfahan. The same is 1,470 m. from sea level and the maximum depth of this wetland is 150 cm. This wetland has high biological resources, including other activities in regards to environment. The area also accounts as a refuge for immigrant birds, thereby adding to the tourist attractions.
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